Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Aesculus chinensis

 

 

This species is usually known as:

Aesculus chinensis, Aesculus chinensis var. chekiangensis, Aesculus chinensis var. wilsonii

 

This species has no synonyms in The Plant List

 

Common names:

Chinese Horse Chestnut

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Aesculus chinensis: 74]

 

Aesculus chinensis.jpg

 

Popularity of Aesculus chinensis over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Aesculus chinensis (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 if there are sufficient numbers of papers (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Aesculus chinensis as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 if there are sufficient numbers of papers (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 370]

 

Triterpenoid saponins (6), Antiviral therapy (5), Cytotoxicity (5), Triterpenoid (5), Antiviral (4), Hippocastanaceae (4), Microclimate (4), Ozone (4), Sap flux density (4), seeds (4), Aesculus (3), Aglaia (3), Anti-retroviral (3), carbohydrates (3), Cassaine diterpenoid amides (3), Dammarenolic acid (3), Erythrophleum fordii (3), Gene expression (3), Human cytomegalovirus (3), Leguminosae (3), medicinal plants (3), Nevirapine (3), Novel antiviral strategies (3), Pharmacokinetics (3), Saponins (3), Secodammarane (3), Virus attachment (3), Virus entry (3), Ab initio calculations (2), Acer pseudoplatanus (2), Activity-guided fractionation (2), Aesculioside (2), Aesculiosides (2), Aesculus glabra (2), Aesculus hippocastanum (2), air pollutants (2), antibacterial (2), antifungal (2), Anti-inflammatory effects (2), antimicrobial agents (2), Antioxidant (2), Antiviral drugs (2), Cajaninstilbene acid (2), Cambridge Crystal Database (2), Camellia oleifera (2), Cameraria ohridella (2), Canopy conductance (2), Cellobiose (2), Cellulose (2), Chemotaxonomy (2), Computer modeling (2), Critical levels (2), Crystal structure (2), ecological impact (2), Escin (2), Escin Ia (2), Fiber (2), fragmentation (2), Glucocorticoids (2), glycolipids (2), glycoproteins (2), glycosidases (2), Hierarchical partitioning (2), HIV-1 protease inhibitor (2), horse chestnut (2), host shift (2), invasive alien insect (2), Isoescin Ia (2), Kaempferol acetylated glycosides (2), leaf area index (2), leaf miner (2), MALDI (2), mode of antimicrobial action (2), Molecular mechanics (2), Negative-pressure cavitation extraction (2), Ozone flux (2), phytochemicals (2), Pigeon pea leaves (2), Pilot-scale application (2), Pinostrobin (2), plant defence system (2), plant extracts (2), Rat (2), secondary metabolites (2), Seed cake (2), Sodium escinate (2), Synergism (2), terpenes (2), Thermal dissipation method (2), Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (2), Urban trees (2), Variation partitioning (2), (20R)-20,25-Epoxy-3-methyl-28-nordammaran-2-en-6[alpha],12[beta]-diol (1).....

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

medicinal (32.42), starch (11.43), poison (7.99), weed (6.67), pesticide (6.09), timber (5.89), nut (4.36), fruit (2.25), ornamental (2.04), shade (1.89).....

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Niu J, Zhao P, Sun Z, Zhu L, Ni G, Zeng X, Zhang Z, Zhao X, Zhao P, Gao J, Hu Y, Zeng X and Ouyang L (2016) Stomatal uptake of O3 in a Schima superba plantation in subtropical China derived from sap flow measurements. Science of The Total Environment 545–546, 465-475. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715312778

Ali Jan Ghasab M, Khamis S, Mohammad F and Jahani Fariman H (2015) Feature decision-making ant colony optimization system for an automated recognition of plant species. Expert Systems with Applications 42, 2361-2370. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417414006976

Barton H and Torrence R (2015) Cooking up recipes for ancient starch: assessing current methodologies and looking to the future. Journal of Archaeological Science 56, 194-201. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440315000771

Chingwaru W, Vidmar J and Kapewangolo PT (2015) The Potential of Sub-Saharan African Plants in the Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: A Review. Phytotherapy Research 29, 1452-1487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5433

Harris AJ, Lutz S, Acevedo P and Wen J (2015) The utility of the morphological variation of pollen for resolving the evolutionary history of Billia (subfam. Hippocastanoideae, Sapindaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53, 228-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jse.12130

Jiang Y, Liu X, Song S, Yu Z and Shao X (2015) Diversity and distribution of ground bryophytes in broadleaved forests in Mabian Dafengding National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 35, 13-19. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1872203215000086

(2014) References. In Seeds (Second Edition). (Ed.^(Eds Baskin CC and Baskin JM) pp. 1075-1473. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124166776000263

Baskin CC and Baskin JM (2014) Chapter 2 - Ecologically Meaningful Germination Studies. In Seeds (Second Edition). (Ed.^(Eds Baskin CC and Baskin JM) pp. 5-35. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124166776000020

Cheok CY, Salman HAK and Sulaiman R (2014) Extraction and quantification of saponins: A review. Food Research International 59, 16-40. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096399691400074X

DCosta L, Simmonds MSJ, Straw N, Castagneyrol B and Koricheva J (2014) Leaf traits influencing oviposition preference and larval performance of Cameraria ohridella on native and novel host plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 152, 157-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eea.12211

Gao F, Hu Y, Fang G, Yang G, Xu Z, Dou L, Chen Z and Fan G (2014) Recent developments in the field of the determination of constituents of TCMs in body fluids of animals and human. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 87, 241-260. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708513001519

Liu S-Y, Xue D-S, Pan J-C, Zhang W-M, Li W-L and Qu H-B (2014) Screening and identification of multiple components in Tanreqing injection using RP-HPLC combined with DAD and ESI-TOF/MS. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 12, 535-541. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875536414600832

Selvakumar GP, Janakiraman U, Essa MM, Justin Thenmozhi A and Manivasagam T (2014) Escin attenuates behavioral impairments, oxidative stress and inflammation in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson׳s disease. Brain Research 1585, 23-36. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006899314003588

Wu X-J, Cui X-Y, Tian L-t, Gao F, Guan X and Gu J-K (2014) Pharmacokinetics of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156, 125-129. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874114006266

Wu X-J, Zhang M-L, Cui X-Y, Paul Fawcett J and Gu J-K (2014) Comparative pharmacokinetics and the bioavailability of escin Ib and isoescin Ib following the administration of escin, pure escin Ib and isoescin Ib in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151, 839-845. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887411300843X

Ye X, Yu S, Liang Y, Huang H, Lian X-Y and Zhang Z (2014) Bioactive triterpenoid saponins and phenolic compounds against glioma cells. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 24, 5157-5163. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X14010439

Cong Y, Li B-k, Yang X-g, Xue Y, Chen Y-z and Zeng Y (2013) Quantitative structure–activity relationship study of influenza virus neuraminidase A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) inhibitors by genetic algorithm feature selection and support vector regression. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 127, 35-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169743913001068

Dutra LS, Leite MN, Brandão MAF, de Almeida PA, Vaz FAS and de Oliveira MAL (2013) A Rapid Method for Total Β-Escin Analysis in Dry, Hydroalcoholic and Hydroglycolic Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. Phytochemical Analysis, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2425

Li T and Peng T (2013) Traditional Chinese herbal medicine as a source of molecules with antiviral activity. Antiviral Research 97, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354212002367

Turner C and Waldebäck M (2013) 2 - Principles of pressurized fluid extraction and environmental, food and agricultural applications. In Separation, Extraction and Concentration Processes in the Food, Beverage and Nutraceutical Industries. (Ed.^(Eds Rizvi SSH) pp. 39-70. (Woodhead Publishing). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845696450500025

Zarrelli A, Ladhari A, Haouala R, DiFabio G, Previtera L and DellaGreca M (2013) New Acylated Oleanane and Lupane Triterpenes from Gymnema sylvestre. Helvetica Chimica Acta 96, 2200-2206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hlca.201300047

Calic D, Devrnja N, Milojevic J, Kostic I, Janosevic D, Budimir S and Zdravkovic-Korac S (2012) Abscisic Acid Effect on Improving Horse Chestnut Secondary Somatic Embryogenesis. HortScience 47, 1741-1744. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/12/1741

French AD (2012) Chapter 2 - Combining Computational Chemistry and Crystallography for a Better Understanding of the Structure of Cellulose. In Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. (Ed.^(Eds Derek H) pp. 19-93. (Academic Press). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123965271000024

Hu J-L, Nie S-P, Huang D-F, Li C and Xie M-Y (2012) Extraction of saponin from Camellia oleifera cake and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 47, 1676-1687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03020.x

Wang H, Wang X, Zhao P, Zheng H, Ren Y, Gao F and Ouyang Z (2012) Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis. Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, 1278-1287. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074211609376

Wang H, Wang X, Zhao P, Zheng H, Ren Y, Gao F and Ouyang Z (2012) Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis. Journal of environmental sciences (China). 24, 1278-1287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60937-6

Wang H, Zhou W, Wang X, Gao F, Zheng H, Tong L and Ouyang Z (2012) Ozone uptake by adult urban trees based on sap flow measurement. Environmental Pollution 162, 275-286. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111006439

Wu X-J, Zhang M-L, Cui X-Y, Gao F, He Q, Li X-J, Zhang J-W, Fawcett JP and Gu J-K (2012) Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of escin Ia and isoescin Ia after administration of escin and of pure escin Ia and isoescin Ia in rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139, 201-206. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887411100794X

Yu F and Chen S (2012) Morphological and biochemical changes of Aesculus chinensis seeds in the process of maturation. New forests. 43, 429-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-011-9289-1

Yuan W, Wang P, Deng G and Li S (2012) Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Aesculus glabra Willd. Phytochemistry 75, 67-77. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942211004985

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Aesculus chinensis: 74; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

 

Cong Y, Li B-k, Yang X-g, Xue Y, Chen Y-z, Zeng Y (2013) Quantitative structure–activity relationship study of influenza virus neuraminidase A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) inhibitors by genetic algorithm feature selection and support vector regression. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 127, 35-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169743913001068

Dutra LS, Leite MN, Brandão MAF, de Almeida PA, Vaz FAS, de Oliveira MAL (2013) A Rapid Method for Total Β-Escin Analysis in Dry, Hydroalcoholic and Hydroglycolic Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. Phytochemical Analysis, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2425

Li T, Peng T (2013) Traditional Chinese herbal medicine as a source of molecules with antiviral activity. Antiviral Research 97, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354212002367

Calic D, Devrnja N, Milojevic J, Kostic I, Janosevic D, Budimir S, Zdravkovic-Korac S (2012) Abscisic Acid Effect on Improving Horse Chestnut Secondary Somatic Embryogenesis. HortScience 47, 1741-4. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/12/1741

French AD (2012) Chapter 2 - Combining Computational Chemistry and Crystallography for a Better Understanding of the Structure of Cellulose. In ‘Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry’. (Ed. H Derek) pp. 19-93. (Academic Press). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123965271000024

Hu J-L, Nie S-P, Huang D-F, Li C, Xie M-Y (2012) Extraction of saponin from Camellia oleifera cake and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 47, 1676-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03020.x

Wang H, Wang X, Zhao P, Zheng H, Ren Y, Gao F, Ouyang Z (2012) Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis. Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, 1278-87. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074211609376

Wang H, Zhou W, Wang X, Gao F, Zheng H, Tong L, Ouyang Z (2012) Ozone uptake by adult urban trees based on sap flow measurement. Environmental Pollution 162, 275-86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111006439

Wu X-J, Zhang M-L, Cui X-Y, Gao F, He Q, Li X-J, Zhang J-W, Fawcett JP, Gu J-K (2012) Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of escin Ia and isoescin Ia after administration of escin and of pure escin Ia and isoescin Ia in rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139, 201-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887411100794X

Yuan W, Wang P, Deng G, Li S (2012) Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Aesculus glabra Willd. Phytochemistry 75, 67-77. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942211004985

Chakraborty SB, Hancz C (2011) Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3, 103-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-5131.2011.01048.x

Gao D-F, Xu M, Zhao P, Zhang X-Y, Wang Y-F, Yang C-R, Zhang Y-J (2011) Kaempferol acetylated glycosides from the seed cake of Camellia oleifera. Food Chemistry 124, 432-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814610007582

Kong Y, Wei Z-F, Fu Y-J, Gu C-B, Zhao C-J, Yao X-H, Efferth T (2011) Negative-pressure cavitation extraction of cajaninstilbene acid and pinostrobin from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 128, 596-605. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030881461100358X

Mercorelli B, Lembo D, Palù G, Loregian A (2011) Early inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus: State-of-art and therapeutic perspectives. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 131, 309-29. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725811000982

Wang H, Ouyang Z, Chen W, Wang X, Zheng H, Ren Y (2011) Water, heat, and airborne pollutants effects on transpiration of urban trees. Environmental Pollution 159, 2127-37. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111001059

Xin W, Zhang L, Sun F, Jiang N, Fan H, Wang T, Li Z, He J, Fu F (2011) Escin exerts synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with low doses of glucocorticoids in vivo and in vitro. Phytomedicine 18, 272-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711310002679

Boldt KM, Rank B (2010) Stomata dimorphism in dicotyledonous plants of temperate climate. Feddes Repertorium 121, 167-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fedr.201000023

Du D, Qu J, et al. (2010) Cytotoxic cassaine diterpenoid–diterpenoid amide dimers and diterpenoid amides from the leaves of Erythrophleum fordii. Phytochemistry 71, 1749-55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942210002682

Esimone CO, Eck G, Nworu CS, Hoffmann D, Überla K, Proksch P (2010) Dammarenolic acid, a secodammarane triterpenoid from Aglaia sp. shows potent anti-retroviral activity in vitro. Phytomedicine 17, 540-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711309002700

Harikumar KB, Sung B, Pandey MK, Guha S, Krishnan S, Aggarwal BB (2010) Escin, a Pentacyclic Triterpene, Chemosensitizes Human Tumor Cells through Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Signaling Pathway. Mol. Pharmacol. 77, 818-27. http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/5/818

Liu Y, Wang F, Wang G, Han J, Wang Y, Wang Y (2010) In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Radix angelicae pubescentis, Fructus bruceae, Caulis spatholobi, Semen aesculi, and Semen pharbitidis against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitol Res 106, 1233-9.

Liu Y-T, Wang F, Wang G-X, Han J, Wang Y, Wang Y-H (2010) In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Radix angelicae pubescentis, Fructus bruceae, Caulis spatholobi, Semen aesculi, and Semen pharbitidis against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitology research. 106, 1233-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1799-9

Péré C, Augustin S, Turlings TCJ, Kenis M (2010) The invasive alien leaf miner Cameraria ohridella and the native tree Acer pseudoplatanus: a fatal attraction? Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12, 151-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00462.x

Reichling J (2010) Plant-Microbe Interactions and Secondary Metabolites with Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties. In ‘Annual Plant Reviews Volume 39: Functions and Biotechnology of Plant Secondary Metabolites’ pp. 214-347. (Wiley-Blackwell). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444318876.ch4

Hempen C-H, Fischer T (2009) XI - Herbs that regulate the qi. In ‘A Materia Medica for Chinese Medicine’ pp. 466-513. (Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443100949000145

Hempen DmC-H, Dr sc. nat. Toni FDm (2009) Herbs that regulate the qi. In ‘A Materia Medica for Chinese Medicine (First Edition)’ pp. 466-513. (Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443100949000145

Wang H, Ouyang Z, Zheng H, Wang X, Ni Y, Ren Y (2009) [Time lag characteristics of stem sap flow of common tree species during their growth season in Beijing downtown]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 20, 2111-7.

Wei Y, Ma C-M, Hattori M (2009) Anti-HIV protease triterpenoids from the acid hydrolysate of Panax ginseng. Phytochemistry Letters 2, 63-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1874390008001146

Zheng CJ, Tang WZ, Huang BK, Han T, Zhang QY, Zhang H, Qin LP (2009) Bioactivity-guided fractionation for analgesic properties and constituents of Vitex negundo L. seeds. Phytomedicine 16, 560-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711308002237

Zhou J-L, Qi L-W, Li P (2009) Herbal medicine analysis by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1216, 7582-94. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967309007882

Anonymous (2008) Current literature in mass spectrometry. Journal of Mass Spectrometry 43, 269-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.1299

Anonymous (2008) Current awareness in phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical Analysis 19, 184-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.1037

Barceloux DG (2008) Buckeye (Aesculus Species). In ‘Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances’ pp. 883-5. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470330319.ch157

Harvey DJ (2008) Analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: An update covering the period 2001–2002. Mass Spectrometry Reviews 27, 125-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mas.20157

Niu Y, Li L, Wu L (2008) Beta-aescin: a potent natural inhibitor of proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells in vitro. Leuk Lymphoma 49, 1384-91.

Zhang Z, Li S, Ownby S, Wang P, Yuan W, Zhang W, Scott Beasley R (2008) Phenolic compounds and rare polyhydroxylated triterpenoid saponins from Eryngium yuccifolium. Phytochemistry 69, 2070-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942208001568

Anonymous (2007) Contents. Analytica Chimica Acta 596, iii-iv. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267007011452

Baraldi C, Bodecchi LM, et al. (2007) Chemical composition and characterisation of seeds from two varieties (pure and hybrid) of Aesculus hippocastanum. Food Chemistry 104, 229-36. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814606008946

Chan P-K (2007) Acylation with diangeloyl groups at C21-22 positions in triterpenoid saponins is essential for cytotoxcity towards tumor cells. Biochemical Pharmacology 73, 341-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295206006277

Chen J, Li W, Yang B, Guo X, Lee F, Wang X (2007) Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 596, 273-80.

Chen J, Li W, Yang B, Guo X, Lee FS-C, Wang X (2007) Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 596, 273-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267007010173

De Clercq E, Clercq ED (2007) Status presens of antiviral drugs and strategies: Part II: RNA VIRUSES (EXCEPT RETROVIRUSES). In ‘Advances in Antiviral Drug Design’ pp. 59-112. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1075859306050027

Zhang Z, Li S (2007) Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L. Phytochemistry 68, 2075-86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942207003305

Anonymous (2006) Subject Index of Volume 341. Carbohydrate Research 341, VI-XLIV. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008621506005374

Anonymous (2006) Contents of Volume 341. Carbohydrate Research 341, XLV-LXVII. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008621506005386

Anonymous (2006) Graphical contents list. Carbohydrate Research 341, 941-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008621506001698

Chattopadhyay D (2006) Ethnomedicinal Antivirals: Scope and Opportunity. In ‘Modern Phytomedicine’ pp. 313-39. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527609987.ch15

Gambari R, Lampronti I, Mahmud THKaAA (2006) Inhibition of immunodeficiency type-1 virus (HIV-1) life cycle by medicinal plant extracts and plant-derived compounds. In ‘Advances in Phytomedicine’ pp. 299-311. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572557X05020179

Harvey DJ (2006) Analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: An update covering the period 1999–2000. Mass Spectrometry Reviews 25, 595-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mas.20080

Mothana RAA, Mentel R, Reiss C, Lindequist U (2006) Phytochemical screening and antiviral activity of some medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. Phytotherapy Research 20, 298-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1858

Zhang Z, Li S, Zhang S, Gorenstein D (2006) Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia. Phytochemistry 67, 784-94. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942206000380

Zhu C, Peng W, Li Y, Han X, Yu B (2006) Synthesis of 3-O-([beta]-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta]-d-glucopyranosyl)-3’-O-([beta]-d-glucopyranosyl)tamarixetin, the putative structure of aescuflavoside A from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. Carbohydrate Research 341, 1047-51. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008621506001157

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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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