Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Epilobium canum



This species is usually known as:

Epilobium canum


This species has also been known as:

Epilobium canum subsp. angustifolium, Epilobium canum subsp. canum, Epilobium canum subsp. garrettii, Epilobium canum var. garrettii, Epilobium canum subsp. mexicanum, Epilobium canum subsp. septentrionale


Common names:

Garrett's Firechalice, California Fuchsia, Zauschneria, California-Fuchsia, Hummingbird Flower, Firechalice, Hummingbird Trumpet



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Epilobium canum: 76]



Popularity of Epilobium canum over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Epilobium canum (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Epilobium canum as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 204]


pollination (6), Epilobium (3), flower (3), nectar production (3), plant competition (3), Boreal forest (2), colour (2), herbivory (2), hummingbird (2), inbreeding depression (2), learning (2), Nectar reward (2), nectar volume (2), overshadowing (2), pollen competition (2), pollen removal (2), pollen tubes (2), refill rate (2), reproduction (2), Selasphorus rufus (2), Solanaceae (2), Understory herbs (2), <ARROW Variable retention logging (2), Acanthaceae (1), adaptation (1), animal pollination; insufficent pollination; life-history traits; phylogenetically-independent contrasts; self-compatibility; autogamy. (1), anther-smut disease (1), ants (1), Assessment (1), attraction to pollinators (1), Bet-hedging (1), Betula pubescens. (1), biological production (1), bumblebee (1), Butterfly assemblages (1), Butterfly Index (1), California (1), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrition (1), Cassia (1), cassia reticulata (1), coevolution (1), conservation biology (1), Costa Rica (1), Datura wrightii (1), density of pollen donors (1), deposition (1), dioecy (1), diurnal and nocturnal pollination (1), Ecological indicators (1), endexine bulges (1), Epilobium (Chamaenerion) (1), epilobium canum (1), epilobium canum ssp. canum (1), epilobium septentrionale (1), Ericaceae (1), Eulampis jugularis (1), exine (1), extrafloral nectaries (1), Floodplains (1), flora (1), floral resources (1), flowering phenology (1), foraging (DOWN>1), fruit production (1), Genetic correlation (1), Genetic variation (1), genotype-environment interaction (1), Gentianaceae (1), geographic isolation (1), geographic mosaic of coevolution (1), germ cells (1), good genes (1), growth rate (1), habitat fragmentation (1), hand pollination (1), hawkmoths (1), Heliconiaceae (1), heritability (1), hummingbird pollination (1), hummingbirds (1), incompatibility (1), individual variation (1), insufficient pollination (1), intraspecific variation (1)…..


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


honey (93.44), fruit (1.86), medicinal (0.66), timber (0.50), poison (0.48), cereal (0.48), weed (0.33), starch (0.22), boundary (0.14), ornamental (0.12)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Arceo-Gómez G, Alonso C, Abdala-Roberts L and Parra-Tabla V (2016) Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae). Plant Biology 18, 594-600.

Marshall DL and Evans AS (2016) Can selection on a male mating character result in evolutionary change? A selection experiment on California wild radish, Raphanus sativus. Am. J. Botany 103, 553-567.

Swanson RJ, Hammond AT, Carlson AL, Gong H and Donovan TK (2016) Pollen performance traits reveal prezygotic nonrandom mating and interference competition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Am. J. Botany 103, 498-513.

Villaseñor JL (2016) Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87, 559-902.

Ghyselen C, Bonte D and Brys R (2015) The influence of herbivory on pre- and postzygotic stages of reproduction following open, self, and outcross pollination. Am. J. Botany 102, 2013-2019.

Trathnigg HK and Phillips FO (2015) Importance of Native Understory for Bird and Butterfly Communities in a Riparian and Marsh Restoration Project on the Lower Colorado River, Arizona. Ecological Rest. 33, 395-407.

Benitez-Vieyra S, Fornoni J, Perez-Alquicira J, Boege K and Dominguez CA (2014) The evolution of signal-reward correlations in bee- and hummingbird-pollinated species of Salvia. Proc R Soc B 281, 20132934-.

Granica S, Piwowarski JP, Czerwińska ME and Kiss AK (2014) Phytochemistry, pharmacology and traditional uses of different Epilobium species (Onagraceae): A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156, 316-346.

Guerra TJ, Galetto L and Silva WR (2014) Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus. Plant Biology 16, 956-966.

Splawski CE, Regnier EE, Harrison SK, Goodell K, Bennett MA and Metzger JD (2014) Mulch Effects on Floral Resources and Fruit Production of Squash, and on Pollination and Nesting by Squash Bees. HortTechnology 24, 535-545.

Campbell DR and Bischoff M (2013) Selection for a floral trait is not mediated by pollen receipt even though seed set in the population is pollen-limited. Functional Ecology 27, 1117-1125.

Dai C and Galloway LF (2013) Sexual selection in a hermaphroditic plant through female reproductive success. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 2622-2632.

Gowda V and Kress WJ (2013) A Geographic Mosaic of Plant–Pollinator Interactions in the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Biotropica 45, 224-235.

Veiga Blanco T, Galetto L and Machado IC (2013) Nectar regulation in Euphorbia tithymaloides L., a hummingbird-pollinated Euphorbiaceae. Plant Biology 15, 910-918.

Gowda V and Kress WJ (2012) A Geographic Mosaic of Plant–Pollinator Interactions in the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Biotropica, n/a-n/a.

Kessler D (2012) Context dependency of nectar reward-guided oviposition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 144, 112-122.

Marshall RES, Hurly TA and Healy SD (2012) Do a flower’s features help hummingbirds to learn its contents and refill rate? Animal Behaviour 83, 1163-1169.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Epilobium canum: 76; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Gowda V and Kress WJ (2012) A Geographic Mosaic of Plant–Pollinator Interactions in the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Biotropica, n/a-n/a.

Kessler D (2012) Context dependency of nectar reward-guided oviposition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 144, 112-122.

Marshall RES, Hurly TA and Healy SD (2012) Do a flower’s features help hummingbirds to learn its contents and refill rate? Animal Behaviour 83, 1163-1169.

Berjano R, Arista M, Ortiz PL and Talavera S (2011) Persistently low fruiting success in the Mediterranean pipevine Aristolochia baetica (Aristolochiaceae): a multi-year study. Plant Biology 13, 109-117.

Pengelly CJ and Cartar RV (2011) Effect of boreal forest logging on nectar production of four understory herbs. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 2068-2074.

Shi X, Wang J-C, Zhang D-Y, Gaskin J and Pan B-R (2010) Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 28, 438-444.

Frankie GW, Thorp RW, Vincent HR and Ring TC (2009) Pollination and Pollinators. In ‘Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 813-819. (Academic Press: San Diego).

Frankie GW, Thorp RW, Vincent HR and Ring TC (2009) Chapter 206 - Pollination and Pollinators. In ‘Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 813-819. (Academic Press: San Diego).

Johnson MTJ, Smith SD and Rausher MD (2009) Plant sex and the evolution of plant defenses against herbivores. PNAS 106, 18079-18084.

Vincent HR and Ring TC (2009) Subject Index. In ‘Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1093-1132. (Academic Press: San Diego).

Carlson JE (2008) Hummingbird responses to gender-biased nectar production: are nectar biases maintained by natural or sexual selection? Proc R Soc B 275, 1717-1726.

Cronk Q and Ojeda I (2008) Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context. J. Exp. Bot. 59, 715-727.

Gomez JM, Bosch J, Perfectti F, Fernandez JD, Abdelaziz M and Camacho JPM (2008) Association Between Floral Traits and Rewards in Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). Ann. Bot. 101, 1413-1420.

Joar Hegland S and Totland Ø (2008) Is the magnitude of pollen limitation in a plant community affected by pollinator visitation and plant species specialisation levels? Oikos 117, 883-891.


Sargent RD and Ackerly DD (2008) Plant-pollinator interactions and the assembly of plant communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23, 123-130.

Smith SE and Read D (2008) Mycorrhizas in achlorophyllous plants (mycoheterotrophs). In ‘Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Third Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 458-506. (Academic Press: London).

Carlson JE (2007) Male-biased nectar production in a protandrous herb matches predictions of sexual selection theory in plants. Am. J. Botany 94, 674-682.

Hernández-Conrique D, Ornelas JF, García-Franco JG and Vargas CF (2007) Nectar Production of Calliandra longipedicellata (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae), an Endemic Mexican Shrub with Multiple Potential Pollinators. Biotropica 39, 459-467.

Joar Hegland S and Totland Ø (2007) Pollen limitation affects progeny vigour and subsequent recruitment in the insect-pollinated herb Ranunculus acris. Oikos 116, 1204-1210.

Nelson SM (2007) Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) as potential ecological indicators of riparian quality in the semi-arid western United States. Ecological Indicators 7, 469-480.

Zimmer K, Hynson NA, Gebauer G, Allen EB, Allen MF and Read DJ (2007) Wide geographical and ecological distribution of nitrogen and carbon gains from fungi in pyroloids and monotropoids (Ericaceae) and in orchids. New Phytologist 175, 166-175.

Berjano R, de Vega C, Arista M, Ortiz PL and Talavera S (2006) A multi-year study of factors affecting fruit production in Aristolochia paucinervis (Aristolochiaceae). Am. J. Botany 93, 599-606.

Caruso CM (2006) Plasticity of inflorescence traits in Lobelia siphilitica (Lobeliaceae) in response to soil water availability. Am. J. Botany 93, 531-538.

Herrera CM, Perez R and Alonso C (2006) Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb. Am. J. Botany 93, 575-581.

Karron JD, Mitchell RJ and Bell JM (2006) Multiple pollinator visits to Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae) flowers increase mate number and seed set within fruits. Am. J. Botany 93, 1306-1312.

Rowley JR and Skvarla JJ (2006) Pollen development in Epilobium (Onagraceae): Late microspore stages (a review). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 140, 91-112.

Ruiz-R N, Ward D and Saltz D (2006) Population Differentiation and the Effects of Herbivory and Sand Compaction on the Subterranean Growth of a Desert Lily. J. Hered. 97, 409-416.

Serrill WD (2006) Restoration Of Native Plants On Catalina Island California. NPJ 7, 4-14.

Galen C, Edward GR and Fakhri AB (2005) It Never Rains but then it Pours: The Diverse Effects of Water on Flower Integrity and Function. In ‘Reproductive Allocation in Plants’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 77-95. (Academic Press: Burlington).

Leiss KA and Klinkhamer PGL (2005) Spatial distribution of nectar production in a natural Echium vulgare population: Implications for pollinator behaviour. Basic and Applied Ecology 6, 317-324.

Leiss KA and Klinkhamer PGL (2005) Genotype by environment interactions in the nectar production of Echium vulgare. Functional Ecology 19, 454-459.

Meyer SE (2005) Intermountain Native Plant Growers Association: A Nonprofit Trade Organization Promoting Landscape Use Of Native Plants. NPJ 6, 104-107.

Mitchell RJ, Karron JD, Holmquist KG and Bell JM (2005) Patterns of multiple paternity in fruits of Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae). Am. J. Botany 92, 885-890.

Ohashi K and Thomson JD (2005) Efficient harvesting of renewing resources. Behav. Ecol. 16, 592-605.

Yang C-F, Sun S-G and Guo Y-H (2005) Resource limitation and pollen source (self and outcross) affecting seed production in two louseworts, Pedicularis siphonantha and P. longiflora (Orobanchaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147, 83-89.

Armbruster WS and Gobeille Rogers D (2004) Does pollen competition reduce the cost of inbreeding? Am. J. Botany 91, 1939-1943.

Herrera CM (2004) Distribution ecology of pollen tubes: fine-grained, labile spatial mosaics in southern Spanish Lamiaceae. New Phytologist 161, 473-484.

Lienert J and Fischer M (2004) Experimental inbreeding reduces seed production and germination independent of fragmentation of populations of Swertia perennis. Basic and Applied Ecology 5, 43-52.

McDade LA and Weeks JA (2004) Nectar in Hummingbird-pollinated Neotropical Plants I: Patterns of Production and Variability in 12 Species. Biotropica 36, 196-215.

Schueller SK (2004) Self-pollination in island and mainland populations of the introduced hummingbird-pollinated plant, Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae). Am. J. Botany 91, 672-681.

Lasso E and Naranjo ME (2003) Effect of Pollinators and Nectar Robbers on Nectar Production and Pollen Deposition in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae). Biotropica 35, 57-66.

Castellanos MC, Wilson P and Thomson JD (2002) Dynamic nectar replenishment in flowers of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Botany 89, 111-118.

Herrera CM (2002) Censusing natural microgametophyte populations: variable spatial mosaics and extreme fine-graininess in winter-flowering Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Am. J. Botany 89, 1570-1578.

Skogsmyr IO and Lankinen Š(2002) Sexual selection: an evolutionary force in plants? Biological Reviews 77, 537-562.

Wang X-F, Tao Y-B and Lu Y-T (2002) Pollen Tubes Enter Neighbouring Ovules by Way of Receptacle Tissue, Resulting in Increased Fruit-set in Sagittaria potamogetifolia Merr. Ann. Bot. 89, 791-796.

Carroll AB, Pallardy SG and Galen C (2001) Drought stress, plant water status, and floral trait expression in fireweed, Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). Am. J. Botany 88, 438-446.

Lindstrom JT, Robbins JA, Klingaman GL, Starr S and Carson J (2001) The University of Arkansas Plant Evaluation Program. HortTechnology 11, 362-364.

Marshall DL and Diggle PK (2001) Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae). Am. J. Botany 88, 242-257.

Moody-Weis JM and Heywood JS (2001) Pollination limitation to reproductive success in the Missouri evening primrose, Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae). Am. J. Botany 88, 1615-1622.

Quesada M, Fuchs EJ and Lobo JA (2001) Pollen load size, reproductive success, and progeny kinship of naturally pollinated flowers of the tropical dry forest tree Pachira quinata (Bombacaceae). Am. J. Botany 88, 2113-2118.

Dogterom MH, Winston ML and Mukai A (2000) Effect of pollen load size and source (self, outcross) on seed and fruit production in highbush blueberry cv. ‘Bluecrop’ (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM; Ericaceae). Am. J. Botany 87, 1584-1591.

Larson BMH and Barrett SCH (2000) A comparative analysis of pollen limitation in flowering plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69, 503-520.

Marshall DL, Avritt JJ, Shaner M and Saunders RL (2000) Effects of pollen load size and composition on pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae). Am. J. Botany 87, 1619-1627.

Snow AA, Spira TP and Liu H (2000) Effects of sequential pollination on the success of “fast” and “slow” pollen donors in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Am. J. Botany 87, 1656-1659.

Winsor JA, Peretz S and Stephenson AG (2000) Pollen competition in a natural population of Cucurbita foetidissima (Cucurbitaceae). Am. J. Botany 87, 527-532.

Arathi HS, Ganeshaiah KN, Shaanker RU and Hegde SG (1999) Seed abortion in Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae). Am. J. Botany 86, 659-662.

Cresswell JE (1999) The influence of nectar and pollen availability on pollen transfer by individual flowers of oil-seed rape (Brassica napus) when pollinated by bumblebees (Bombus lapidarius). Journal of Ecology 87, 670-677.

Lake JC and Hughes L (1999) Nectar Production and Floral Characteristics of Tropaeolum majus L. Grown in Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide. Annals of Botany 84, 535-541.

Larson BMH and Barrett SCH (1999) The ecology of pollen limitation in buzz-pollinated Rhexia virginica (Melastomataceae). Journal of Ecology 87, 371-381.

(1998) Book Reviews. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 15, 214-216.

Bronstein JL (1998) The Contribution of Ant-Plant Protection Studies to Our Understanding of Mutualism1. Biotropica 30, 150-161.

Carlsson G, Elmqvist, Ågren, Gardfjell and Ingvarsson (1998) Floral sex ratios, disease and seed set in dioecious Silene dioica. Journal of Ecology 86, 79-91.

Jeffery C. Hall JCDTFaFG (1998) Subject Index. In ‘Advances in Genetics’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1-177. (Academic Press).

Boose DL (1997) Sources of variation in floral nectar production rate in Epilobium canum (Onagraceae): implications for natural selection. Oecologia., 4.

Tangmitcharoen S and Owens JN (1997) Floral Biology, Pollination, Pistil Receptivity, and Pollen Tube Growth of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.). Ann. Bot. 79, 227-241.

Holm SO (1994) Pollination density - effects on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Betula pubescens Ehrh. in northern Sweden. New Phytologist 126, 541-547.

Bosch J (1992) Floral biology and pollinators of three co-occurring Cistus species (Gistaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 109, 39-55.

Snow AA (1991) Effects of pollen-load size on sporophyte competitive ability in two epilobium species. American midland naturalist. 125, 348-355.

Marshall DL (1990) Non-Random Mating in a Wild Radish, Raphanus sativus. Plant Species Biology 5, 143-156.

John G. Scandalios TRFWaJGS (1989) Index. In ‘Advances in Genetics’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 193-202. (Academic Press).

Ottaviano E, Mulcahy DL and John G. Scandalios TRFWaJGS (1989) Genetics of Angiosperm Pollen. In ‘Advances in Genetics’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1-64. (Academic Press).

Galen C and Rotenberry JT (1988) Variance in pollen carryover in animal-pollinated plants: Implications for mate choice. Journal of Theoretical Biology 135, 419-429.

Hepher A and Boulter ME (1987) Pollen Tube Growth and Fertilization Efficiency in Salpiglossis sinuata: Implications for the Involvement of Chemotropic Factors. Ann. Bot. 60, 595-601.

Snow AA (1986) Pollination dynamics in Epilobium canum (Onagraceae): consequences for gametophytic selection. American journal of botany. 73, 139-151.

Rowley JR (1981) Pollen wall characters with emphasis upon applicability. Nordic Journal of Botany 1, 357-380.

Feakins SJ and Sessions AL Controls on the D/H ratios of plant leaf waxes in an arid ecosystem. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 2128-2141.

Marshall DL, Avritt JJ, Maliakal-Witt S, Medeiros JS and Shaner MGM The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns. Ann. Bot. 105, 7-22.

Marshall RES, Hurly TA and Healy SD Do a flower’s features help hummingbirds to learn its contents and refill rate? Animal Behaviour 83, 1163-1169.

Pengelly CJ and Cartar RV Effect of boreal forest logging on nectar production of four understory herbs. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 2068-2074.

Simpson MG 8 - Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots. In ‘Plant Systematics (Second Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 275-448. (Academic Press: San Diego).

Snow AA Evidence for and against pollen tube competition in natural populations. Biotechnology and ecology of pollen : proceedings, International Conference on Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen, 9-11 July 1985, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA / ed. by D.L. Mulcahy, G.B. Mulcahy and E. Ottaviano., 405-410.


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

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